The Minox is a subminiature camera conceived in 1922 and invented in 1936 by German- Latvian Walter Zapp, which Latvian factory VEF (Valsts Elektrotehniskā Fabrika) manufactured from 1937 to 1943. After World War II, the camera was redesigned and production resumed in Germany in 1948. Originally envisioned as a luxury item,  it gained wide notoriety as a spy camera. Minox branched out into 110 film format and 35 mm film cameras in 1976 and 1978, respectively. Minox continues to operate today, producing or branding optical and photographic equipment.